Friday, February 23, 2018
Parenting practices influence achievement motivation. If a parent's expectations are unreasonable (too high or low) it affects children's motivation. For example, if a parent expects a child to do the dishes by themselves at age five without an older sibling or parent helping them, this is an unreasonable expectation. It will affect a child's motivation because it will cause them to think they can't do anything much less right. Low motivation can be caused by expectations that are too easy or too high. Both cause a child to take a why try attitude. Parents whose expectations are developmentally appropriate tend to have high motivation to accomplish a task. Children who show high achievement usually come from homes that include developmentally appropriate timing of achieving expectations. They also come from homes where parents have high confidence in their children's abilities, a supportive family environment and high motivated role models. School aged children who have high expectations of themselves tend to stay with a task longer and end up performing better on tasks than children who have low expectations.
Children who are school aged link self-efficacy to the choice of tasks, effort and persistence and achievement in their choice of task. Children's interpretation of their abilities tends to predict their achievement rather than their interpretation of what others believe their abilities are. School aged children's conceptions about their capabilities are based on whether the ability is considered stable over time. School aged children with high self-efficacy set and embrace challenging goals, use appropriate strategies to achieve them, try hard, persist with difficult tasks and seek help when necessary.Children with low self-efficacy tend to be frustrated and depressed which makes the idea of success more intangible. When a child has low self-efficacy parents, siblings, friends, teachers etc need to help.
These are some of the ways and reasons it is important to encourage children, build a healthy self-esteem and be supportive of and to children.
Sunday, February 11, 2018
Family can influence attitude development in a child through modeling appropriate or inappropriate behavior. A child learns to perform behavior simply by watching someone else perform the same behavior, therefore they model the behaviors and attitudes they see in their everyday lives. This comes from interactions they have, conversations they hear among parents, siblings and extended family. For example, if a child is taught to define different as wrong they will not accept anyone who is different from them because they've been different is wrong. If a child has been taught different just means different and that people make different choices and those choices are neither right nor wrong, the child will grow up to accept people, opinions and beliefs and not look down on them because they're different than they are. How children are socialized affects future attitudes and plays a role in shaping children's futures. For example if a child is taught they can't be friends with someone because they're not a member of their religion, the child will start to see others who aren't of their religion as bad people and this will affect their future attitudes of people who aren't members of their religion. It shapes a child's future because their circle of friends may be limited and a prejudice has been taught.
Friends are a big influence in children's attitudes and beliefs. For most children, preschool is their first experience with school. While at preschool they're exposed to what other children say and believe. They begin to put weight on what their friends say and the things they like and dislike. Children compare the acceptability of beliefs to those of their friends and begin to compare and contrast similarities and differences of those in their circle of friendship and those out of it.
Children who have contact with people from other generations benefit from these interactions. When visiting grandparents or aunts and uncles it impacts a child's attitude toward other adults. Children who spend time with people from other generations and have direct exposure to older adults have a more positive attitude toward other adults. Activities and time spent with older adults can be seen as boring by children. When they spend time with grandparents or other adults from other generations they see that grandparents and other adults have things in common with them as a child. Children learn adults from other generations like to play some of the same games or like to read some of the same authors they do and it's a great way for children to learn about history.
Parents who promote accepting attitudes and beliefs have children who are more likely to adopt the same attitudes and beliefs. As a result children become more tolerant of differences and learn to celebrate diversity.
Sunday, February 4, 2018
Attitudes about cultural groups develops in three phases. The first phase is from age two and a half to three years old. This is when children become aware of cultural differences. Phase two starts around age four and this is when children begin to notice the ways they're similar to others and have specific cultural related words and concepts. For example, this is when children notice that they may be white but someone in their preschool class is a different color. This is when children start to use words such as black, white, Christian or Catholic to explain the difference in color or skin or religion.
Phase three begins around age seven when children begin to have attitudes toward various cultural groups. For example, a child may play with a child who is black but not Indian or may play with children who are white but not mixed. The development of attitudes is influenced by a child's age, cognitive development and social experiences. The last stage is important in discussing attitudes and belief development because it's during the middle school years that this phase occurs. During the third stage children become familiar with the various ways people within their family interact with others in the community and begin to notice things like discrimination, violence, and prejudice.
Sunday, January 28, 2018
Experience affects self-efficacy because when children succeed on their own, their self-efficacy increases.
Modeling affects self-efficacy because when children see someone else succeed their self-efficacy increases because they believe they can succeed too. If a friend or sibling fails it causes a child's self-efficacy to decrease because they see the task as hard.
Social persuasion is a factor of self-efficacy because encouragement will help to increase self-efficacy while discouragement decreases it.
Physiological factors affect self-efficacy because stress affects children's physically. Sometimes a child can feel nauseous or have stomach pains or other types of pains and this causes self-efficacy to decrease. For example, if a child has a big test coming us such as the ACT or SAT a child can feel nauseous or have other pains that they're feeling because of the stress of taking the test brings.
Parents can nurture self-efficacy by setting up easy to attain situations so children learn how to complete a large task by first completing smaller tasks of the task first. Parents can model motivation to their children by participating in activities and succeeding in them or showing them how they react to failure. Parents can encourage children. The more encouragement a child receives the more self-efficacy they'll have and this will help them grow to be successful, happy adults.
All seven of these motivations (mastery motivation, achievement motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, locus of control, learned helplessness and self-efficacy) help children develop attitudes and values because they help a child have a positive attitude about achieving goals. These motivations help children see that being motivated to accomplish a goal helps them realize what they're good at and that having a positive attitude to accomplish a goal helps achieve the goal.
Sunday, January 21, 2018
Locus of control is one's quality of performance or perception of responsibility for success or failure. For example, if a child's soccer team wins a game and it's the child's perception that they won because they were the one who hit the last goal in the child's perception is they won because of them. Locus of control can be internal or external. When a child associates their performance or behavior to an internal locus the responsibility for the behavior is given to themselves. For example, when a child learns to go potty in the child the child associates their behavior to themselves and the responsibility of going potty in the toilet to themselves and doesn't give any credit to the parent helping or teaching them. A child who associates their behavior to an external locus of control attributes responsibility of behavior to something or someone outside themselves. For example, the child gives all the credit to them going potty in the toilet to the parent who helps them.
When a child feels powerless over events they may no longer feel responsible for their behavior and lose motivation to achieve. If this happens, it's called learned helplessness. Leaned helplessness is the belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and they have little or no control over their environment or situation. It's characterized by a decreased motivation and failure to learn and often accompanied by negative emotions such as sadness, anxiety, and frustration. Preschoolers who show signs of learned helplessness interpret their poor performance as a sign of being bad. School age children interpret poor performance to a lack of knowledge. Parents, siblings, teachers, coaches etc., can prevent and help children overcome learned helplessness by teaching children to attempt tasks and activities they're capable of doing themselves. The more children encouraged and feel supported, the more willing they'll be to try new things and try them on their own.
Self-efficacy is the last type of motivation and is the belief in one's competence and is capable of performing tasks in order to reach a goal. There are four main factors that affect self-efficacy: experience, modeling, social persuasions, and physiological factors. In order to go into these in more detail I will discuss this last type of motivation and its factors in the next post.
Saturday, January 13, 2018
Motives are needs or emotions that cause a person to act. Mastery motivation is when a child is crawling all over the house exploring their environment. Achievement motivation is used to explain the motivation of children to achieve the mastery of challenging tasks. For example, if a child wants to learn how to rock climb and are motivated to put the effort into learning how, this is a child showing achievement motivation. These are the first of seven types of motivation. The seven types of motivation are: Mastery motivation, achievement motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, locus of control, learned helplessness and self-efficacy. In this post we'll discuss the first four.
Mastery motivation is the natural drive that leads children to explore and master their environment. It has a relationship between age and the ability to do a task. For example, when a child is ready to walk the motivation to master the task of walking will kick in. It will start with the above example of a child learning to crawl and move to explore the their environment. Until a child's motivation to learn to walk kicks in they'll crawl. Mastery motivation is seen mainly in infants and toddlers as they explore their environment and learn to master the skills they need to move around in their environment. It has a relationship between age and the ability to do a task because the age range can be broad when a child masters a task. For example, a child can learn to crawl anywhere between six and nine months and learn to do a shape sorter anywhere between fifteen and eighteen months.
Achievement motivation is the need for success or attainment of excellence. Some think achivement motivation is learned. People are driven to succeed for various reasons and the reasons can be external or internal. Some people are driven to only learn how to juggle, others are driven to learn and then become part of a circus act. The reasons why one person only wants to learn the task and another person wants to be a professional are different and only those people can tell you what drives them to succeed at the level they do.
Intrinsic motivation is participating in an activity for inherent satisfaction or enjoyment. For example, a child plays a board game with their parents because they enjoy playing games with their parents and the time that is spent with them. It's behavior that is driven by internal rewards and the motivation to participate comes from the person and the satisfaction they receive from doing the activity. For example, many people volunteer because of the internal satisfaction they receive from volunteering.
Home and school environments can promote or block intrinsic motivation by supporting or crushing a child's physiological need for competence and autonomy. Parents how respond to their child's needs by modifying rules and incentives according to their child's behavior will enhance their child's intrinsic motivation. Children are rewarded with material items ( food, money, toys) or punished with threats, and competition tend to diminish intrinsic motivation because parents are seen as controllers of behavior. For example, when a parent goes and buys a child something the parent knows the child wants because the child made a choice they wanted them to make, like eating their vegetables, a parent has used a reward to enhance a child's intrinsic motivation. An example, of a parent punishing with threat is telling a child if they don't play baseball instead of basketball they'll throw their basketball away. When a parent rewards with completion is when a parent purposefully shows a child that they're better than they are at a task. Choice and opportunity for self-direction appear to enhance intrinsic motivation because it enables a sense of autonomy in children.
Extrinsic motivation is participating in an activity to attain an outcome such as to receive a reward or avoid punishment. This motivation arises outside a person and is performed to receive a reward. For example, when a person participates in a study because they'll be compensated time and travel or a child does well on a test because if they get a good grade they get an ice cream cone.
These are the first three types of motivation. The other four will be discussed next week. Have a good weekend!