Saturday, February 4, 2017
5 Other Agents of Socialization
The community a child grows up in plays a role in the socialization of a child. A child's community includes neighbors, public library, transportation, and public activities offered. The community also includes crime, pollution and noise. A child's neighborhood and community reflects multiple households where friends and neighbors interact. A neighborhood could include families of different faiths and cultures and these elements affects a child's experience in socialization.
Culture is a set of beliefs and institutions of a particular group or nation. Culture is also physical objects that represent a culture such as clothing. Culture is a force that reacts to social, political and economic events that shape the meaning of events. For example, if a child grows up going to country clubs and resources are unlimited, that culture will shape who that child socializes with, how a recession affects them etc. Culture provides ways for children to see the world and helps shapes beliefs, goals and practices. Cultures can have similar goals and methods but the way they're implemented will be different. For example, every parent wants their children to have nice manners. In the western part of the U.S., a parent refers to a child not having nice manners as a child doing something wrong. In in the southern part of the U.S., a child not having nice manners as a child is referred to as a child being ugly- ugly meaning in their behavior, not outward appearance.
Religion is an important agent of socialization. It covers most of a child's culture. Parents instill religious values and promote the importance of core values such as fairness and honesty. Children raised in a religious household participate in rituals of the family's religion such as going to church on Sunday and celebrating holidays of their faith.
The type of child care parents put their child in is a socialization agent for many children. Child care is the nurturing care of a child by an adult other than a parent. The needs of a child are met by two major types of child care: center based and family child care. Center based care includes part-time or full day preschools, pre-kindergarten programs and federal programs for low-income children such as Head Start. Family care providers care for children in their home for a fee, such as nanny. It can also be people who've become licensed to run a child car in their home by the state they live in.
When children become school age, the school they attend becomes a social agent. Children spend time with teachers, classmates, and less time with siblings and parents. Children learn social skills at school as they find friends and have to work with people they may not like or get along with. School teaches about the values of society and their community. Classmates and friends influence and teach beliefs and values such as what to think, wear and how to talk. Children learn social behaviors such as turn-taking and friends support and express the positive social behaviors that promote social competence. Before and after school programs affect a child's socialization as children of different ages are placed together. This gives older ones a chance to help the younger ones to find and advocate in the older ones as well as a role model.
Each of these agents of socialization is important and teaches children different skills and rules about socialization and the rules that society expects children to follow.